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Yellowstone Wolf: Project Citizen Science

Yellowstone wolf research bibliography

Almberg, E. S., L. D. Mech, D. W. Smith, J. W. Sheldon, and R. L. Crabtree. 2009. A serological survey of infectious disease in Yellowstone National Park's canid community. PLoS One 4:e7042.
Almberg, E. S., P. C. Cross, A. P. Dobson, D. W. Smith, and P. J. Hudson. 2012. Parasite invasion following host reintroduction: A case study of Yellowstone's wolves. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 367:2840-2851.
Almberg, E. S., P. C. Cross, and D. W. Smith. 2010. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem's carnivore community. Ecological Applications 20:2058-2074.
Almberg, E.S., Cross, P.C., Dobson, A.P., Smith, D.W., Metz, M.C., Stahler, D.R. and Hudson, P.J., 2015. Social living mitigates the costs of a chronic illness in a cooperative carnivore. Ecology letters, 18(7), pp.660-667.
Anderson, T. M., S. I. Candille, M. Musiani, C. Greco, D. R. Stahler, D. W. Smith, B. Padhukasahasram, E. Randi, J. A. Leonard, and C. D. Bustamante. 2009. Molecular and evolutionary history of melanism in North American gray wolves. Science 323:1339-1343.
Baan, C., R. Bergmuller, D. W. Smith, and B. Molnar. 2014. Conflict management in free-ranging wolves, Canis lupus. Animal Behaviour 90:327-334.
Bangs, E. E. and S. H. Fritts. 1996. Reintroducing the gray wolf to central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:402-413.
Bangs, E. E., S. H. Fritts, J. A. Fontaine, D. W. Smith, K. M. Murphy, C. M. Mack, and C. C. Niemeyer. 1998. Status of gray wolf restoration in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:785-798.
Bangs, Ed. Lessons from Wolf Restoration in The Northwestern U.S.. 2017. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 22(4): 92-93.
Barber-Meyer, S.M., Mech, L.D. and White, P.J., 2010. Elk calf survival and mortality following wolf restoration to Yellowstone National Park. Wildlife Monographs.
Barber-Meyer, S.M., Mech, L.D., Newton, W.E. and Borg, B.L., 2016. Differential wolf-pack-size persistence and the role of risk when hunting dangerous prey.
Beschta, R. L. 2003. Cottonwoods, elk, and wolves in the Lamar Valley of Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Applications 13:1295-1309.
Beschta, R. L. and W. J. Ripple. 2010. Recovering riparian plant communities with wolves in northern Yellowstone, USA. Restoration Ecology 18:380-389.
Beschta, R. L. and W. J. Ripple. 2014. Divergent patterns of riparian cottonwood recovery after the return of wolves in Yellowstone, USA. Ecohydrology.
Beschta, R.L. and Ripple, W.J., 2012. Berry-producing shrub characteristics following wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park. Forest Ecology and Management, 276, pp.132-138.
Bleicher, Sunny S. 2017. Landscapes of fear: from trophic cascades to applied management and population ecology. PeerJ Preprints open access:
Borg BL, Arthur SM, Bromen NA, Cassidy KA, McIntyre R, Smith DW, et al. (2016) Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153808. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153808.
Brainerd, S. M., H. Andrénb, E. E. Bangs, E. H. Bradley, J. A. Fontaine, W. Hall, Y. Iliopoulos, M. D. Jimenez, E. A. Jozwiak, and O. Liberg. 2008. The effects of breeder loss on wolves. The Journal of Wildlife Management 72:89-98.
Carroll, C., M. K. Phillips, N. H. Schumaker, and D. W. Smith. 2003. Impacts of landscape change on wolf restoration success: planning a reintroduction program based on static and dynamic spatial models. Conservation Biology 17:536-548.
Cassidy KA, McIntyre RT (2016), Do gray wolves (Canis lupus) support pack mates during aggressive inter-pack interactions?, Animal Cognition, 1-9.
Cassidy, K.A., 2013. Group composition effects on inter-pack aggressive interactions of gray wolves in Yellowstone National Park (Masters Thesis, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA).
Cassidy, K.A., MacNulty, D.R., Stahler, D.R., Smith, D.W. and Mech, L.D., 2015. Group composition effects on aggressive interpack interactions of gray wolves in Yellowstone National Park. Behavioral Ecology, 26(5), pp.1352-1360.
Coulson, T., D. R. MacNulty, D. R. Stahler, R. K. Wayne, and D. W. Smith. 2011. Modeling effects of environmental change on wolf population dynamics, trait evolution, and life history. Science 334:1275-1278.
Creel, S., J. E. Fox, A. Hardy, J. Sands, B. Garrott, and R. O. Peterson. 2002. Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk. Conservation Biology 16:809-814.
Creel, S., J. Winnie Jr, B. Maxwell, K. Hamlin, and M. Creel. 2005. Elk alter habitat selection as an antipredator response to wolves. Ecology 86:3387-3397.
Cross, P., Almberg, E., Haase, C., Hudson, P., Maloney, S., Metz, M., Munn, A., Nugent, P., Putzeys, O., Stahler, D., Stewart, A. and Smith, D. (2016), Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography. Ecology. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1890/15-1346.1
Cubaynes, S., D. R. MacNulty, D. R. Stahler, K. A. Quimby, D. W. Smith, and T. Coulson. 2014. Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus). Journal of Animal Ecology.
Eberhardt, L., R. Garrott, D. Smith, P. White, and R. Peterson. 2003. Assessing the impact of wolves on ungulate prey. Ecological Applications 13:776-783.
Fortin, D., H. L. Beyer, M. S. Boyce, D. W. Smith, T. Duchesne, and J. S. Mao. 2005. Wolves influence elk movements: behavior shapes a trophic cascade in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 86:1320-1330.
Fritts, S. H., E. E. Bangs, J. A. Fontaine, M. R. Johnson, M. K. Phillips, E. D. Koch, and J. R. Gunson. 1997. Planning and implementing a reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho. Restoration Ecology 5:7-27.
Geffen, E., M. Kam, R. Hefner, P. Hersteinsson, A. Angerbjörn, L. Dalèn, E. Fuglei, K. Norèn, Adams, J. R. Adams, and J. Vucetich. 2011. Kin encounter rate and inbreeding avoidance in canids. Molecular Ecology 20:5348-5358.
Gese, E. M., R. D. Schultz, M. R. Johnson, E. S. Williams, R. L. Crabtree, and R. L. Ruff. 1997. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33:47-56.
Gipson, P. S., E. E. Bangs, T. N. Bailey, D. K. Boyd, H. D. Cluff, D. W. Smith, and M. D. Jiminez. 2002. Color patterns among wolves in western North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin:821-830.
Gunther, K. A. and D. W. Smith. 2004. Interactions between wolves and female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone National Park. Ursus 15:232-238.
Hedrick PW, Smith DW, Stahler DR (2016) Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves. Evolution. 2016 Apr; 70(4):757-66.
Hedrick, P. W., D. R. Stahler, and D. Dekker. 2014. Heterozygote Advantage in a Finite Population: Black Color in Wolves. Journal of Heredity 105:457-465.
Hochard, J., & Finnoff, D. 2017. Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Trophy-Hunted Species. Journal of Theoretical Biology (only available online currently).
Informa, A. 2007. Wolves at the door of a more dangerous world. Science 27:438.
Jimenez, M. D., E. E. Bangs, C. Sime, and V. J. Asher. 2010. Sarcoptic mange found in wolves in the Rocky Mountains in western United States. J Wildl Dis 46:1120-1125.
Kauffman, M. J., J. F. Brodie, and E. S. Jules. 2010. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade. Ecology 91:2742-2755.
Kauffman, M. J., N. Varley, D. W. Smith, D. R. Stahler, D. R. MacNulty, and M. S. Boyce. 2007. Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. Ecology Letters 10:690-700.
Laundré, J. W., L. Hernández, and K. B. Altendorf. 2001. Wolves, elk, and bison: reestablishing the" landscape of fear" in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:1401-1409.
MacNulty, D. R., A. Tallian, D. R. Stahler, and D. W. Smith. 2014. Influence of Group Size on the Success of Wolves Hunting Bison. PLoS One 9:e112884.
MacNulty, D. R., D. W. Smith, J. A. Vucetich, L. D. Mech, D. R. Stahler, and C. Packer. 2009. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves. Ecology Letters 12:1347-1356.
MacNulty, D. R., D. W. Smith, L. D. Mech, and L. E. Eberly. 2009. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: is bigger better? Journal of Animal Ecology 78:532-539.
MacNulty, D. R., D. W. Smith, L. D. Mech, J. A. Vucetich, and C. Packer. 2012. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk. Behavioral Ecology 23:75-82.
MacNulty, D. R., L. D. Mech, and D. W. Smith. 2007. A proposed ethogram of large-carnivore predatory behavior, exemplified by the wolf. Journal of Mammalogy 88:595-605.
Mao, J. S., M. S. Boyce, D. W. Smith, F. J. Singer, D. J. Vales, J. M. Vore, and E. H. Merrill. 2005. Habitat selection by elk before and after wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:1691-1707.
McIntyre, R., Theberge, J.B., Theberge, M.T. and Smith, D.W., 2017. Behavioral and ecological implications of seasonal variation in the frequency of daytime howling by Yellowstone wolves. Journal of Mammalogy, 98(3), pp.827-834.
Mech LD, Barber-Meyer SM, Erb J (2016) Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156682. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156682.
Mech, L. D., E. S. Almberg, D. W. Smith, S. Goyal, and R. S. Singer. 2012. Use of Real-time PCR to Detect Canine Parvovirus in Feces of Free-ranging Wolves. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48(2):473-6.
Merkle, J. A., D. R. Stahler, and D. W. Smith. 2009. Interference competition between gray wolves and coyotes in Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87:56-63.
Metz MC, Smith DW, Hebblewhite M, Stahler DR. (2016) Temporal variation in wolf predation dynamics in the multi-prey system of northern Yellowstone National Park. PeerJ Preprints 4:e1963v1
Metz, M. C., D. W. Smith, J. A. Vucetich, D. R. Stahler, and R. O. Peterson. 2012. Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Animal Ecology 81:553-563.
Metz, M. C., J. A. Vucetich, D. W. Smith, D. R. Stahler, and R. O. Peterson. 2011. Effect of sociality and season on gray wolf (Canis lupus) foraging behavior: implications for estimating summer kill rate. PLoS One 6:e17332.
Newsome, T. M., Boitani, L., Chapron, G., Ciucci, P., Dickman, C. R., Dellinger, J. A., López-Bao, J. V., Peterson, R. O., Shores, C. R., Wirsing, A. J. and Ripple, W. J. (2016), Food habits of the world's grey wolves. Mammal Review. doi: 10.1111/mam.12067.
Paquet, P. (1992). Prey Use Strategies of Sympatric Wolves and Coyotes in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Journal of Mammalogy, 73(2), 337-343. doi:1. Retrieved from doi:1
Peterson, R. O., A. K. Jacobs, T. D. Drummer, L. D. Mech, and D. W. Smith. 2002. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:1405-1412.
Peterson, R. O., J. A. Vucetich, J. M. Bump, and D. W. Smith. 2014. Trophic Cascades in a Multicausal World: Isle Royale and Yellowstone. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 45:325-345.
Ripple, W. J. and E. J. Larsen. 2000. Historic aspen recruitment, elk, and wolves in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA. Biological Conservation 95:361-370.
Ripple, W. J. and R. L. Beschta. 2004. Wolves and the ecology of fear: can predation risk structure ecosystems? Bioscience 54:755-766.
Ripple, W. J. and R. L. Beschta. 2006. Linking wolves to willows via risk-sensitive foraging by ungulates in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem. Forest Ecology and Management 230:96-106.
Ripple, W. J. and R. L. Beschta. 2007. Restoring Yellowstone's aspen with wolves. Biological Conservation 138:514-519.
Ripple, W. J. and R. L. Beschta. 2012. Trophic cascades in Yellowstone: The first 15 years after wolf reintroduction. Biological Conservation 145:205-213.
Ripple, W. J., J. A. Estes, R. L. Beschta, C. C. Wilmers, E. G. Ritchie, M. Hebblewhite, J. Berger, B. Elmhagen, M. Letnic, M. P. Nelson, O. J. Schmitz, D. W. Smith, A. D. Wallach, and A. J. Wirsing. 2014. Status and Ecological Effects of the World's Largest Carnivores. Science 343(6167).
Ripple, W. J., R. L. Beschta, J. K. Fortin, and C. T. Robbins. 2014. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone. Journal of Animal Ecology 83:223-233.
Ripple, WJ et al. (2016) Does Trophy Hunting Support Biodiversity? A Response to Di Minin et al. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 31, Issue 7, 495 - 496.
Robert L. Beschta RL, Ripple WJ (2016) Riparian vegetation recovery in Yellowstone: The first two decades after wolf reintroduction, Biological Conservation, Volume 198, 93–103.
Ruth, T. K., D. W. Smith, M. A. Haroldson, P. C. Buotte, C. C. Schwartz, H. B. Quigley, S. Cherry, K. M. Murphy, D. Tyers, and K. Frey. 2003. Large-carnivore response to recreational big-game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary. Wildlife Society Bulletin:1150-1161.
Smith DW, Metz M, Wilmers C, Stahler D, Geremia C. (2016) Climate induced wolf prey selection in Yellowstone National Park, 1995-2015. PeerJ Preprints 4:e2001v1
Smith, D. 2005. Ten years of Yellowstone wolves. Yellowstone Science 13:7-33.
Smith, D. W. 2005. Mixed messages about opportunistic carnivores. Conservation Biology 19:1676-1678.
Smith, D. W., E. E. Bangs, J. K. Oakleaf, C. Mack, J. Fontaine, D. Boyd, M. Jimenez, D. H. Pletscher, C. C. Niemeyer, and T. J. Meier. 2010. Survival of colonizing wolves in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States, 1982-2004. The Journal of Wildlife Management 74:620-634.
Smith, D. W., L. D. Mech, M. Meagher, W. E. Clark, R. Jaffe, M. K. Phillips, and J. A. Mack. 2000. Wolf-bison interactions in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Mammalogy 81:1128-1135.
Smith, D. W., R. O. Peterson, and D. B. Houston. 2003. Yellowstone after wolves. Bioscience 53:330-340.
Smith, D. W., T. D. Drummer, K. M. Murphy, D. S. Guernsey, and S. B. Evans. 2004. Winter prey selection and estimation of wolf kill rates in Yellowstone National Park, 1995-2000. Journal of Wildlife Management 68:153-166.
Smith, D.W., Metz, M.C., Cassidy, K.A., Stahler, E.E., McIntyre, R.T., Almberg, E.S. and Stahler, D.R., 2015. Infanticide in wolves: seasonality of mortalities and attacks at dens support evolution of territoriality. Journal of Mammalogy, 96(6), pp.1174-1183.
Stahler, D. R., D. R. MacNulty, R. K. Wayne, B. vonHoldt, and D. W. Smith. 2013. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves. Journal of Animal Ecology 82:222-234.
Stahler, D. R., D. W. Smith, and D. S. Guernsey. 2006. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. The Journal of Nutrition 136:1923S-1926S.
Stahler, D., B. Heinrich, and D. Smith. 2002. Common ravens, Corvus corax, preferentially associate with grey wolves, Canis lupus, as a foraging strategy in winter. Animal Behaviour 64:283-290.
Switalski, T. A. 2003. Coyote foraging ecology and vigilance in response to gray wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:985-993.
Tallian, A., 2017. The Behavior and Ecology of Cursorial Predators and Dangerous Prey: Integrating Behavioral Mechanisms with Population-level Patterns in Large Mammal Systems.
Tallian, A., Ordiz, A., Metz, M.C., Milleret, C., Wikenros, C., Smith, D.W., Stahler, D.R., Kindberg, J., MacNulty, D.R., Wabakken, P. and Swenson, J.E., 2017, February. Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents. In Proc. R. Soc. B (Vol. 284, No. 1848, p. 20162368). The Royal Society.
Uboni A, Smith DW, Mao JS, Stahler DR & Vucetich JA. 2015. Long- and short-term temporal variability in habitat selection of a top-predator. Ecosphere 6(4): 51.
Uboni A, Vucetich JA, Stahler DR & Smith DW. 2015. Interannual variability: a crucial component of space use at the territory level. Ecology 96(1): 62-70.
Uboni, A., Smith, D.W., Stahler, D.R. and Vucetich, J.A., 2017. Selecting habitat to what purpose? The advantage of exploring the habitat–fitness relationship. Ecosphere, 8(4).
Vonholdt, B. M., D. R. Stahler, D. W. Smith, D. A. Earl, J. P. Pollinger, and R. K. Wayne. 2008. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves. Molecular Ecology 17:252-274.
Vucetich, J. A., D. W. Smith, and D. R. Stahler. 2005. Influence of harvest, climate and wolf predation on yellowstone elk, 1961-2004. Oikos 111:259-270.
Vucetich, J. A., M. Hebblewhite, D. W. Smith, and R. O. Peterson. 2011. Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems. Journal of Animal Ecology 80:1236-1245.
Wilmers, C. C. and W. M. Getz. 2005. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone. PLoS Biology 3:e92.
Wilmers, C. C., D. R. Stahler, R. L. Crabtree, D. W. Smith, and W. M. Getz. 2003. Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: scavenging at wolf-and hunter-killed carcasses in Greater Yellowstone, USA. Ecology Letters 6:996-1003.
Wilmers, C. C., R. L. Crabtree, D. W. Smith, K. M. Murphy, and W. M. Getz. 2003. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Animal Ecology 72:909-916.
Wright, G. J., R. O. Peterson, D. W. Smith, and T. O. Lemke. 2006. Selection of northern Yellowstone elk by gray wolves and hunters. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1070-1078.